Category: Article (page 1 of 2)

Aliens in Cheshire

Clive Washington

 

Flatworm

 A few years ago I had been surprised to find a flattish yellow sluglike creature, about two inches long, under a stone in my garden. A bit of research showed that it was the Australian flatworm, Australoplana sanguinea, an alien species which appeared in the UK (in the Scilly Isles) in 1980, but has since been found across the country. There is some concern about these flatworms as they are earthworm predators, and DEFRA advice is to trap them with flat refuges and destroy as many as can be found. They are listed on schedule 9 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, which makes it an offence to deliberately release them into the wild. This winter I’ve seen a few more, in the same spot in my garden, but this time I had my camera to hand and was able to observe the creature closely. Reminiscent of a leech, it stretches its head end out and waves it over the surface in a search pattern, looking, presumably, for its prey, or indications of it. After a few minutes it must have found some sort of trail because it turned round through 180 degrees and headed directly towards a worm-hole in the soil substrate. It disappeared down the hole in about a minute, presumably in search of its prey, and didn’t emerge in the half-hour that I watched afterwards. The following evening I encountered two more, which are now in a moss-filled pot in my office, waiting for a suitable experiment to suggest itself!

Two Mega-rarities in Cheshire

Clive Washington

 

Ernobius angusticollis

One of the questions I am most frequently asked is, what is the reason for an amateur to study natural history? Surely you can’t contribute anything useful without a professional qualification, or being affiliated with a university or museum? Hasn’t it all been discovered already anyway?

In fact natural history has always been the domain of the amateur, and the vast majority of what we know about life on this planet has been discovered by people who were not paid for their efforts and received no formal scientific education. This summer has produced, for me, a couple of good examples of how amateurs can contribute to knowledge, and why we should continue to encourage others to take part in our activities and develop their skills.

When I started moth trapping in 2008, I wasn’t desperately interested in moths, but rather in all the other things that were attracted to light, the so-called ‘by-catch’, and primarily beetles. For example the carrion beetle Nicrophorus humator is a common visitor, which gets flicked away with a stick – you definitely don’t want to handle one of these or your hands will stink for hours, and soap won’t help. I’ve also had Curculio glandium, several Aphodius, Harpalus rufipes, and a few water beetles.

It hasn’t been a good year for moths and the trap has been empty on many nights, but on the 2nd of June it was warm (for Warrington!) and I went out to check things around 10 pm. There were a few Diptera and not much else, then I saw a small beetle, cylindrical, about 6 mm long, which I didn’t recognise at all, sitting on the crossbar directly under the bulb. If it had been anywhere else I probably wouldn’t have seen it. So it got potted and I brought it inside.

A few minutes scanning the Internet (using the Kerbtier website, www.kerbtier.de which is well laid-out for this) brought me to Ernobius (Anobiidae) for which my only key was Joy. The first couplet says ‘Th. strongly angled in middle of sides… so that hind margin is narrower than front margin… parvicollis Surrey, vr. This fitted my specimen perfectly but finding a rare Surrey beetle in my back yard was a bit unexpected, so it was off to the Manchester Museum a few days later, where Dmitri Loganov showed me his single British specimen of angusticollis (the name had changed) and some European specimens which were sufficient to convince me that I was on the right track. Don Stenhouse sent me a copy of the Ernobius key from Fruede Harde and Lohse which confirmed the antennal pattern (the sequence of long and short segments in the antennae are characteristic in many Anobiidae).

 The potential rarity of this insect meant that I had to get a full verification, so it was sent to Howard Mendel at the Natural History Museum who dissected its genitalia (fortunately it was male) and confirmed that it was angusticollis. Even the NHM only have a single British specimen! There are only 5 records, all from Surrey, on the NBN Gateway. So we have a beetle that is rare even in its single southern habitat – and it turns up in my back garden in Warrington! What’s going on? Like all good research it raises more questions than it answers, but one thing is for sure, it would never have been found without amateur effort.

The second discovery happened last weekend (the 22nd July) when I had dropped in to Rocksavage nature reserve for a casual field session while Andy was doing some management work. I had taken suction samples from a number of areas, and rather than sort them in a tray, I had simply dumped the lot into an extractor – a wire basket suspended over a bucket – to see what would fall through. A few ground beetles appeared but nothing significant, and I was about to empty the lot out when I noticed a bright green insect walking along the top of the bucket. “Hmm, that’s a bush cricket”, I thought, and as I knew absolutely bugger all about Orthoptera, I potted it, showed it to Andy, and took it home for a closer look.

The FSC Orthoptera card keyed it out easily as a speckled bush cricket, which had no Cheshire records on rECOrd and only southern UK records on NBN. Andy phoned Paul Hill, who has been recording Orthoptera in Cheshire for years, who confirmed that it was a speckled bush cricket, and the first record for Cheshire. It has been recorded in South Staffordshire, and thus appears to be moving slowly northwards – probably due to global warming. Changes in distribution of this type are one of the most useful things that the amateur can contribute, and clearly show how warming is changing the distribution of species in the UK. As Rocksavage is in North Cheshire, it is likely that there are other sites for this insect in Cheshire and it’s now up to us to get out there and find them!

(Of course the other question that the public keep asking me is if naturalists are people who take their trousers off in fields… No wonder the professionals coined the term ecologist…)

 

Our Noisy Neighbours And Their Offspring!

‘The pungent odour of guano and the guttural calls of seabirds’.

This sounds like the typical description of a coastal breeding seabird colony. However, it can also be applied to the edge of a Cheshire woodland bordering Rostherne Mere National Nature Reserve, approximately 45km from the nearest sea.

Rostherne Mere plays host to one of the region’s largest inland breeding Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) colonies, which has witnessed a rapid expansion in only a few years.

Cormorants have sporadically bred inland in Britain for centuries but a marked acceleration occurred from the early 1980s. By 2005, breeding had been noted at 58 inland sites with the breeding population rising to at least 2,096 pairs. This figure actually exceeded the coastal total of 1,564 pairs (Mitchell et al. 2004, Newson et al. 2007, Norman, 2008). Interestingly, a number of the early inland nesting sites appear to have undergone a population decline in recent years.

In Cheshire, Keith Massey reported on the ‘First Nesting of Cormorants in Cheshire and Wirral in 1999’ in The Cheshire and Wirral Bird Report 2000. The location was Fiddler’s Ferry Power Station but the two eggs laid disappeared without a trace. It was five years later before Cormorants successfully bred in Cheshire, and amazingly simultaneously at four locations – Frodsham Marsh, Fiddler’s Ferry, Trentabank Reservoir and Rostherne Mere (Norman, 2008).

At Rostherne Mere, nesting first occurred in 2004 with 5 nests recorded. The graph below shows the rapid increase in nest building in subsequent years, with an amazing 160 nests logged in 2011.

Cormorants have roosted in a series of alders at the foot of Harper’s Bank Wood at Rostherne Mere for many years but these numbers have gradually built up in recent times, peaking at 457 birds in May 2011. This count was augmented by many of the young birds of Rostherne origin. With between 2 and 3 young in each nest, that is a lot of fish suppers for the parents to provide. It is thought that many journeys are made to and from waterways around the county and possibly beyond.

The number of Cormorant nests at Rostherne Mere 2004 to 2011. The trend line represents a moving average.

Monthly maximum counts of Cormorants roosting at Rostherne Mere 1976 to 2011.

As in many other sites, the first nest builders at Rostherne appeared to show typical plumage characteristics of the race Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, showing extensive white on throat and forecheeks with conspicuous white plumes in a solid stripe on sides of the nape. As the colony has developed it appears the subspecies Phalacocorax carbo carbo has possibly become the major breeder. However, separating the races is extremely difficult and inter-breeding has also been reported from other sites (Newson et al. 2007).

Interestingly, an examination of breeding performance has shown that inland breeders have a higher nestling survival rate than coastal birds and they tend to breed for a more protracted period (Newson et al.2005). At Rostherne Mere, the first nests are often visible in early February, supporting these findings.

After the chicks make their first tentative flights, they gather in large parties for fish catching practice. This can involve up to 60 birds which makes an incredible spectacle as they herd fish into the shallows. On occasion, the fish literally jump out of the water to avoid the predating pack.

As a final comment, a word of warning is required. After venturing slightly too close to the colony earlier this year during some scrub clearance work, I received the gift of the regurgitated head and guts of a large roach which descended from a great height. Others have said it was not intended but I’m not convinced!

 

References

Mitchell, P.I., Newton, S.F., Ratcliffe, N. & Dunn, T.E. (2004) Seabird populations of Britain and Ireland. T. & A.D. Poyser, London.

Newson, S.E., Marchant, J.H., Ekins, G.R. and Sellers R.M. (2007) The status of inland-breeding Great Cormorants in England. British Birds100: 289-99.

Newson, S.E., Hughes, B., Hearn, R. & Bregnballe, T. (2005) Breeding performance and timing of breeding of inland and coastal breeding Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo In England and Wales, B.T.O., Bird Study,52,10-17

Norman, D. (2008) Birds in Cheshire and Wirral, A breeding and wintering atlas, Liverpool University Press, 162-163.

 

The Recipe For A Special Hot-Pot by Bill Bellamy

The 10-spot pot beetle (Cryptocephalus decemmaculatus) is a bit of a mouthful and it is also very rare. The only known site for this leaf beetle in England is within the 16.5 hectares of Wybunbury Moss National Nature Reserve (NNR), located towards the southern border of Cheshire .

There are nineteen Cryptocephalus species found in Britain and many of them are of conservation concern. The adults of the genus are fully winged, thermophilic and can be found perching on their respective host plants. They have a fascinating life cycle in which the female beetle encases each egg she lays in faeces. The eggs are dropped onto the ground and, once hatched, the larvae adds to the egg case to form a larval case, which it carries around and retreats into at the first sign of danger. Larvae of all the species feed on leaf litter, making them vulnerable to habitat ‘clean-up’ management. They eventually pupate from the larval case and make a short flight up into the leaf layer.

Cryptocephalus decemmaculatus is a yellow, black spotted leaf beetle. The adults are small (4-5 mm long).

Dr Ross Piper is an expert on the genus and has made some very interesting discoveries aboutCryptocephalus decemmaculatus, finding that the beetle depends upon dynamic scrub transition and adults are found predominantly on small Salix spp. trees invading areas of wetland. The beetle moves through its habitats using suitable host-plants as ‘stepping stones’. These beetles cannot fly well and there appears to be no interchange of adults between sub-populations that are separated by small areas of unsuitable habitat, a deduction reinforced by other studies of their genetic differentiation over distances as small as <1km.

Ross believes that the beetle population at Wybunbury Moss was isolated when surrounding land made way for agriculture, many thousands of years ago or possibly even when the surrounding land became drier in the post-glacial period.

Wybunbury Moss in July 2008 before recent tree removal to prevent the Moss drying out (Bill Bellamy).

Wybunbury Moss is one of only two types of special ‘subsidence formed moss’ known to exist in the British Isles. Peat has been deposited in a glacial hollow but has actually formed a raft, in some places only a metre thick, which floats on a water-filled basin itself over 12 metres in depth. It is believed that the floating nature of the Moss may have been created by the subsidence of salt-bearing rocks beneath the Moss basin. The site is managed by Natural England.

During my involvement with Natural England, it has been fascinating seeing how the balance in habitat management is achieved with tree and scrub removal to reduce the drying out of the Moss whilst maintaining and encouraging the host trees for Cryptocephalus decemmaculatus. The objective is to provide habitat corridors for the beetle to move ‘via a series of short flights’ into different suitable areas of the Moss, thus making in less vulnerable to the vagaries of factors impacting micro-sites.

Wybunbury Moss, together with its surrounding woodland, reedswamp and flower-rich meadows also provides habitat for a rich variety of uncommon plants and animals, including two Nationally rare spiders.

Female Cryptocephalus decemmaculatus (Ross Piper).

Wybunbury Moss is, however, a dangerous environment and there is no general public access to the site. A public footpath surrounds the NNR, giving good views across the Moss. A visit to the site in September 2012 is included in the CAN Events Calender 2012/13 in which we will be venturing onto the Moss with guidance, so why not join us to experience this unique and special habitat?

While Cryptocephalus decemmaculatus is only known to be found at Wybunbury Moss, it is possible it could be present at other sites where there is scrub transition between woodland and wetland. Late May to early June is the best time of year to see the colourful adults so keep an eye out!

Many thanks for the information contained within this article to:

Dr Ross Piper

Ruper Randall (Natural England)

 

Adders in Cheshire by Andy Harmer

Adder. Photo: Andy Harmer

The Adder could possibly be the most under-recorded of all of our terrestrial vertebrates in Cheshire, and though the secretive nature of this animal is a factor, it is not considered the main cause. Unfortunately, other than Risley Moss SSSI there is no evidence of structured or even ad hoc surveying or monitoring throughout the Cheshire recording area.  At a time when nationally the Adder is regarded as our fastest declining herptile, it is crucial that Cheshire naturalists aren’t caught napping.  How unpalatable would it be for the Adder to survive centuries of persecution only to demise now through naturalist apathy?

All known records, both historic and contemporary have been used in the preparation of  this article so this animal’s distribution, past and present, can be put into some type of context.  The aspiration is that it will serve to encourage natural historians out of their armchairs and away from their usual haunts to go and search for this much maligned but beautiful animal.  This animal can only be protected regionally if there is up to date knowledge of its distribution.

The Records

On examination of the Adder records in the Local Record Centre’s (rECOrd) database, plus a few additional records I’ve gleaned recently from national surveys and historical documents, I can say without doubt it makes grim reading.  If the lack of modern records from former sites actually means absence of the animal rather than absence of a recorder then it is worrying, though skewed results due to recorder apathy must be considered.  Most records are from Risley Moss SSSI which has an introduced population of Adder.  Sympathetic management by staff and Risley Moss Action Group has ensured that there has been continued favourable habitat.  With eight or even nine herptile species present Risley Moss is undoubtedly the most diverse herpetofauna site in the county so it is confusing why there is no mention of this impressive suite of herptiles in the SSSI citation.

Adders, like all animals and habitats, are at the mercy of man, though mercy is not a term often associated with mans’ age old relationship with this native viper.   Two terms perhaps more apt in the county would be destruction and indifference; destruction of the animal itself and indifference in its plight as its habitat disappeared or became fragmented and isolated.

Killing an Adder seemed to be not only the remit of the gamekeeper but a duty no less for anybody who encountered the serpent.  Numerous newspaper reports both nationally and regionally suggest that this attitude and practice was widespread.  Indeed it appears abundance was casually measured on the amounts killed annually. The following report refers to a site north of Winsford;-

Adders have been unusually abundant this year.  In the course of last week eighteen full-grown ones were killed in a field near Bradford-green, in this county.

Chester Chronicle – Friday 27 July 1827

There are plenty of historical reports of Adder-killing in and around the country; man’s instinct and ability to kill snakes, together with the obvious bad press the snake has received over the centuries combined to help man adopt this destructive theme that undoubtedly still persists in the minds and methods of some today.

The following excerpt is from the Cheshire Observer dated 28 July 1860 and gives an insight into why the Adder has long been regarded as an animal whose presence must not be tolerated.

The Ayr Advertiser says that a little girl, about five or six years old, who belonged to the neighbourhood of Barhill, the other day put her hand into a bird’s nest which she had discovered, when she was stung between the forefinger and thumb by an adder. She walked home and died the following day.

In the following tragic case, it would have been better if the Adder had been left alone;

SINGULAR FATAL ACCIDENT – On Sunday, June 22nd 1873, a boy named George Parry, in the service of Mr Bithell, farmer, Wheatsheaf, near Wrexham, saw an adder in one of the fields on his master’s farm.  Shortly after seeing it he borrowed a knife from another boy to cut a stick to kill it.  While in the act of trimming the stick he slipped down a bank, and fell upon the open knife, which stabbed him near the region of the heart, and he bled to death before assistance could be procured.

One would assume that the fervour regarding the slaughter of adders would be directly connected to the fear of this venomous snake but the following report from London suggests recklessness of comedic proportions.

On the previous night, while at the Cooper’s Arms, Perfitt drew from his pocket what they supposed to be a snake, which they had picked up on Hayes Common, where they had been on an excursion, and suddenly found himself bitten severely in the left thumb. Perfitt threw the reptile on the table, and both his companions, in endeavouring to capture it, were also similarly bitten. It got on the floor and a dog, in attempting to seize it, was bitten in the breast, and immediately commenced howling and swelling to such an extraordinary size that it was thought necessary to destroy it. The light then broke in upon them that they had been bitten by an adder, and that they were conveyed to the hospital, where Perfitt and Lane still remain seriously ill.           

Cheshire Observer – 2 September 1865

In reality, death and even serious injury from an Adder bite in the UK is extremely rare, averaging out at one death per decade. Four people were killed by cows during an eight week period in 2008, and 5000 people were treated following dog attacks in the same year.

Historical status of Adder

Adder was probably common in Cheshire up until the mediaeval times though massive contraction in its range had already occurred through soil improvement measures and the ever increasing population farming the land. The areas of thin sandy soils that spread out across the plain, many of which linked up meres and mosses, would have created an excellent mosaic of habitats where connectivity persisted and heath would have been extensive.

The Forest of Delamere was once vast and swallowed up the two former forests of Mara and Mondrem.  Stretching from Frodsham, a hamlet on the north Cheshire coast down to almost Nantwich, a salt town near the south Cheshire boundary, and reaching from the River Weaver to the River Gowy, it was a substantial piece of real estate which is still contracting.  As a Royal Forest, it would have been governed by Forest Law and though this could not stop ‘progress’ indefinitely it may well have retarded it. Perhaps this is why our largest woodland still persists in the heart of the original Delamere, and why the Adder distribution map further on in this article has a definite cluster within this region.

The following newspaper article shows that Delamere Forest, though still a large area, was contracting its range due to on-going reclamation for arable through soil improvement even in the late 19th century.  Modern Delamere has shrunk further still and is now two and a half miles from the racecourse referred to in the following newspaper article.

We hear that Mr Harrison, of Woodbine Cottage, situated near the racecourse on the forest of Delamere, has taken on a long lease , together with the whole of the land within the circle of the racecourse, , computed to be more than 50 acres in extent, which is all in heath, and to break it up Mr Harrison has engaged a steam plough.  The racecourse is to be kept on as usual.  There are no doubts but this forest land, after the liberal use of marl upon it in moderately wet seasons, will produce good remunerative crops.  Mr Simeon Leather has thus cultivated a large area on the forest. 

Cheshire Observer – Saturday 2 August 1873

There is a bitter-sweet irony here regarding the amphibious herptiles and the Adder.  Around 25,000 field ponds still exist in Cheshire (Harmer 2009), most of them marl pits, although historically this number would have been far greater. The saturation of amphibians across the Cheshire plain can be attributed, in the main, to these landscape features.  While these marl pits in themselves don’t create a problem for Adders, the reasons behind their creation do.  Marl, a type of limey clay, was extracted and spread on poor soils (such as sandy soils) to enable it to be used for arable.  In short, the marl, known for its ability to increase crop yield, could be used to turn heath into productive farmland.  As newts, frogs, and toads of Cheshire became more numerous through this practice, the Adder declined.  Despite this onslaught Adders were still present at many sites in the 19th century.

The difficulty of turning Cheshire’s meres and mosses into ‘productive’ areas was probably their saving grace.  Adder records were generated from obviously suitable sites around sandstone outcrops such as Frodsham, Peckforton and Bickerton.  Frodsham, a hamlet overlooking the Mersey estuary was the most northerly of a daisy chain of Adder sites that stretched all the way down to the Shropshire border.

Carrington Moss, once part of old Cheshire had adder reported up until the summer of 1893, and though the adder was reputedly ‘hardly known’ by shepherds and gamekeepers in the east Cheshire hills, this still suggests that it was at least known.

Wirral has limited historical records for Adder but can they have been that rare? Sand Lizards were regarded as common along an 8 mile stretch of sand dune system from New Brighton to West Kirby – though this is not a view held by all naturalists due to documented evidence being weighted towards a single naturalist – and an Adder was recorded along that stretch at Leasowe by Isaac Byerley.  Surely Adder would have found this stretch of sand dunes favourable.  Eastham Woods has a record of Adder. Thurstaston Common, Bidston Moss and Cleaver’s Heath are shadows of their former selves, fragments of heath now that may once have supported Adder.

Current Status

The Adder is currently known from five tetrads (Post 2000 records) which can be defined as 4 locations (The 2 Goyt Valley sites are almost 2 miles apart) within in the LRC recording area.  These are Risley Moss SSSI, which is an introduction site in the north of the county, Oakhanger Moss SSSI in the south of the county, and two sites in Goyt Valley which is in the extreme east of Cheshire. Once again, it is worth stating that this is unlikely to be an accurate picture of distribution as other than monitoring at Risley Moss SSSI the author knows of no other concerted Adder recording activity in Cheshire.

Map of Cheshire Adder Records

It appears that a number of sites in Cheshire and Wirral still have potential for Adder. Delamere Forest has areas of clear-felled sections complete with the structural diversity associated with good Adder habitat.  Hatchmere SSSI had a large area cleared to the west of the mere; the mosaic and structure of bare sandy soil, rotting logs, Heather, Bracken, and Sweet Gale looks ideal habitat and hopefully connectivity with Delamere Forest has enabled colonisation.  Shemmy and South Moss at the Abbott’s Moss SSSI seem excellent candidates too.  An old record exists for Wybunbury Moss and areas along the sandstone trail from Frodsham to Grindley Brook may turn up the species with a bit of survey effort.  The Bickerton Hills have anecdotal records of Adder and the Goyt Valley hinterland looks promising.  There are many other isolated meres and mosses across the county that have potential for Adder;  Flaxmere, Oakmere and Lindow Moss to name but a few.

The Future for Adder in Cheshire

Habitat loss, lack of, or unsympathetic management has to be at the top of the ‘conservation issues’ list for Adders but there are modern issues too; there appears to be dog ownership now of epidemic proportions (8.6 million dogs in the UK), and many heaths suffer disturbance through a constant stream of dog walkers and dog(s).  Some remaining heathland sites have such public pressure that it’s questionable as to whether an animal sensitive to disturbance can survive there.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The above images of Frodsham Hill show how an ideal habitat of Gorse, Heather, Bilberry and Bracken on gentle slopes with exposed rocks can be lost in a generation. The image on the right taken in 2012 was taken from the same viewpoint as the image on the left taken in 1930. This dramatic change in habitat occurred through a combination of factors such as lack of grazing, a halt to periodic burning and the tailing off in demand for wood (dead or alive) by locals for fuel.

Loss of habitat, whether it’s caused by natural succession or unit-driven tree-planting by conservation organisations is an issue. The above image taken in 2004 shows a section of land where around seven thousand trees were planted. This was adjacent to a site where Adder had been recorded.  The edge habitat of the Adder location is now totally unfavourable due to it being shaded by the developing woodland.  I was advised that no ecological surveys were undertaken prior to planting.

‘Conservation by numbers’ mentality can be problematic as the feeling that every effort has to be measured numerically can obscure aims and results.   There is surely a need for greater detail than ‘how many trees we’ve planted’, ‘how many reserves we have’, ‘how many records we hold’, ‘how many birds we’ve ringed or twitched’, ‘how many years we’ve been going’ and ‘how many newts we’ve moved’.   How do we measure the value of say, a particular habitat, its connectivity, or its value in a particular landscape with this vogue but vulgar tool?

Lack of management has to be addressed at nature reserves; heathland continuity is crucial in Adder conservation terms; the feast or famine management regime which goes from scrub saturation to scrub clearance degrades the habitat.

A heathland reserve in Cheshire

There could be exciting times ahead for the Adder hunter in Cheshire so it’s crucial that an active group is formed and a programme of surveys worked out.

 Adder sightings, along with any other biological data should be sent to rECOrd, Cheshire’s local biological records centre.

Andy Harmer

February 2012.

 

I would like to thank all those who have shared their records with me because this article is nothing without the data. Eric at rECOrd as ever, welcomed my interest and opened his database files to me. Thanks to the people from both inside and outside the county who gave me help with this article.
ARG UK, Arnold Boyd Atkins Consultancy, A. Newstead, Ann Hall, ARC Trust, John Baker, Bill Bellamy, C.R.Brown, Carl Clee, Chris Gleed Owen, Chris Monk, Dave Williams, Derbyshire Amphibian and Reptile Group, Derbyshire Wildlife Trust, Gaynor Kerry, Geoff Simpson, Haydn Evans, Helen Lacey, Isaac Byerley, J.E.Bowers, J.F.D.Frazer, Jeff Clarke, John Byrne, Warren De Tabley, John Wilkinson, Jon Cranfield, Kath Patrick, Laurence Greening, Luck (rECOrd), Mark Cozens, Martin Stubbs, Natural England, Norman Ellison, David Orchard, Paul Hill, Rachel Hacking, Rob Smith, Simon Jinks, Stan Berrington, Sue Tatman, Thomas Coward, Pat Waring, Warren Sloane, Warrington Museum.

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